What is Collagen?

How to effectively replenish Collagen in our body?

Skin is the largest organ of human body. It may take up to 1.5-2.0m2  in surface area[1]. This physical barrier of human body serves to defense us from foreign or environmental factors, so our body stays in a hygienic and healthy condition.

Collagen is a protein composed of amino acids. It is one of the most abundant yet essential substance within body structure and skin composition. About 30% of our total body protein is took up by Collagen[2].

 

Collagen can be acquired from food, both animals or botanical source[1]. Most of time, collagen are consumed through poultry, bovine, porcine or marine origins. However, collagen ingested from daily diet are broke down into amino acids by digestive system for constituting nutrients that are insufficient to our body.

Why is Collagen important to us?

Collagen is well known for its contribution to smooth skin. Yet, it is an essential biomaterial to mobile joints, stable bones, healthy muscles, strong ligaments and tendons, glossy hair and healthy finger nails. As one of the primary structural proteins of connective tissues and being abundant in blood vessels and cell membranes, collagen promotes self-repair and healing in our body as well.

 

Meanwhile, chronological and photo-aging alter collagen metabolism[5]. At about the age of 25, Collagen synthesis in our body falls behind its degradation, leading to a deficiency of Collagen in our body. ­

 

Given the fact that Collagen accounts for about 80% of the properties of skin[2] and that 60% of body cartilage[18], 65-87% of tendons[19], and 95% of osteocyte cells[20], less support to dermal, bone and other extracellular matrix is provided with a lower density of Collagen mass in our body. Signs of aging in skin including dryness, folds, wrinkles, decline in elasticity, plumpness and firmness become more visible gradually. On the other hand, you may find yourself moving with discomfort, less stable, flexible or being injured more easily.

Types of Collagen

As of 2020, there are 28 types of collagen identified[3] whereas Type I-V are most discussed,

Type I

accounts for 90% of collagen in human body. Its densely packed fibres provide structure to skin, bones, tendons[9], fibrous cartilage, connective tissue, and teeth.

Type II

fibres are packed relatively loose. found in elastic cartilage, which have positive effects on joints[8].

Type III

component of muscles, organs, and arteries.

Type IV

appears in skin layers for filtration, as organ surrounding linings and is essential substance to cell membranes[6, 7].

In which, Type I & III are the major Collagen present in the extracellular matrix in both skin and tendon tissue[4]. This inferred that consuming Collagen Type I & III may have positive impacts on skin and musculoskeletal system, including a higher dermal density[17], improved epidermal barrier regeneration[17] and bone mass[18], as well as decreased degradation of soft tissues and connective tissues[19, 20]. Of all the available sources, Collagen of bovine origin is loaded with Type I & III.

 

The following benefits are observed when consuming Collagen in form of dietary supplements[2],

- Enhancement of skin health

- Higher skin elasticity

- Reduced wrinkles

- Improved skin surface structure

- Decrease of cellulite

- Promoting growth and health of fingernails

- Stimulate cartilage regeneration

- Maintaining healthy joints and mobility

- Improvement in activity-related joint discomfort

How to effectively

replenish Collagen in our body?

Although Collagen consumed through daily diet are broken down by our stomach for further applications, Bioactive Collagen (also known as Hydrolysed Collagen or Collagen Peptide) are able to distributed throughout the body by transcellular transport across intestinal epithelial[4].

 

Bioactive Collagen is lower in molecular weight than regular Collagen. It is 2.0 – 5.0 kDa in average[17, 18, 20] (depending on their types), while scientific evidence shows that substance of 1 to 10 kDa are absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract, transferred to the blood, and deposited into cartilage[1]. Several other studies also showed Bioactive Collagen Peptides deposited throughout one’s body including skin tissues[12-14], connective tissues and various organs[13].

 

The same study also found that oral ingestion of 3 to 5 kDa bioactive collagen for 62 days resulted in significant increases in both the diameter and density of the collagen fibrils, which suggests that the mechanical properties improved[1].

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Bioactive Collagen Peptides

How does it work?

Instead of individual amino acids, Bioactive Collagen Peptides is absorbed in form of di- or tripeptides (chains of 2-3 amino acids)[15]. These Collagen peptides are precursors to Collagen, namely procollagen.

 

By ingesting Bioactive Collagen supplements, the content of procollagen in the bloodstream is elevated[12]. This indicates the efficacy of Bioactive Collagen absorption in our body.

 

Meanwhile, some of these procollagens intensify the activities of fibroblasts along with synthesis of hyaluronic acid[16] and elastin[17]. This may conclude the favourable consequence to skin led by Bioactive Collagen supplements. ­­

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REFERENCES

 

  1. Kwatra, Bharat. 2020. “COLLAGEN SUPPLEMENTATION: THERAPY FOR SKIN DISORDERS: A REVIEW.” World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 2504-2518.

  2. GELITA. 2016. Flyer_VERISOL_eng. Nov.

  3. Farage, M.A., K.W. Miller, and P. Elsner. 2017. “Degenerative Changes in Aging Skin.” In Textbook of Skin Aging, by Miller, K.W., Mainach, H.I., Eds. M.A., 15-30. Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany: Springer.

  4. Maryam Borumand, Sara Sibilla. 2020. “Daily consumption of the collagen supplement Pure Gold Collagen® reduces visible signs of aging.” Clin Interv Aging 131.

  5. Department of Dermatology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, and Laboratory of Cutaneous Aging Research, Clinical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital. 2001. “Modulation of Skin Collagen Metabolism in Aged and Photoaged Human Skin In Vivo.” Journal of Investigative Dermatology 1218-1224.

  6. Abreu-Velez, Ana Maria, and Michael S Howard. 2012. “Collagen IV in Normal Skin and in Pathological Processes.” N Am J Med Sci. 1-8.

  7. Pozzi, Ambra, Peter D Yurchenco, and Renato V Iozzo. 2017. “The nature and biology of basement membranes.” Matrix Biol. 57-58:1-11.

  8. Bakilan, Fulya, Onur Armagan, Merih Ozgen, Funda Tascioglu, Ozge Bolluk, and and Ozkan Alatas. 2016 . “Effects of Native Type II Collagen Treatment on Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Controlled Trial.” The Eurasian Jornal of Medicine (48(2)): 95–101.

  9. Wu, Marlyn, Kelly Cronin, and Jonathan S. Crane. 2020. Biochemistry, Collagen Synthesis. Florida: Treasure Island(FL): StatPearls Publishing.

  10. Mak, Ki M, Chien Yi M Png, and Danielle J Lee. 2016. “Type V Collagen in Health, Disease, and Fibrosis.” The Anatomical Record 299 (5): 613-29.

  11. Birk, D E. 2001. “Type V collagen: heterotypic type I/V collagen interactions in the regulation of fibril assembly.” Micron. 32 (3): 223-37.

  12. Yazaki, Misato, Yukihiko Ito, Masayoshi Yamada, Spyros Goulas, Sachiyuki Teramoto, Masa-aki Nakaya, Shigeo Ohno, and Kohji Yamaguchi. 2017. “Oral Ingestion of Collagen Hydrolysate Leads to the Transportation of Highly Concentrated Gly-Pro-Hyp and Its Hydrolyzed Form of Pro-Hyp into the Bloodstream and Skin.” Journal of Agricultral and Food Chemistry (American Chemical Society) 2315-2322.

  13. Oesser, Steffen, Milan Adam, Wilfried Babel, and Jürgen Seifert. 1999. “Oral Administration of 14C Labeled Gelatin Hydrolysate Leads to an Accumulation of Radioactivity in Cartilage of Mice (C57/BL).” The Journal of Nutrition 129 (10): 1891-1895.

  14. Watanabe-Kamiyama, Mari, Muneshige Shimizu, Shin Kamiyama, Yasuki Taguchi, Hideyuki Sone, Fumiki Morimatsu, Hitoshi Shirakawa, Yuji Furukawa, and Michio Komai. 2010. “Absorption and Effectiveness of Orally Administered Low Molecular Weight Collagen Hydrolysate in Rats.” Journal of Agricultral and Food Chemistry 58 (2): 835-841.

  15. Yamamoto, Shoko, Kisaburo Deguchi, Masamichi Onuma, Noriaki Numata, and Yasuo Sakai. 2016. “Absorption and Urinary Excretion of Peptides after Collagen Tripeptide Ingestion in Humans.” Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 39 (3): 428-434.

  16. Sato, Kenji. 2017. “The presence of food-derived collagen peptides in human body-structure and biological activity.” Food and Function (12): 4325-4330.

  17. GELITA. 2017. “VERISOL® White Paper.”

  18. GELITA. 2016. “FORTIBONE® White Paper.”

  19. GELITA. 2018. “TENDONFORTE® White Paper.”

  20. GELITA. 2017. “FORTIGEL® White Paper .”